Orange oil is extracted by simple pressure from the outer coloured part of the Citrus sinensis' peel. Oranges are widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates for the sweet fruit and commercially for essential oil extraction. Other origins for Orange oil include Brazil, South Africa & Spain.
Orange oil is a by-product of the juice industry. Oil is cold pressed from the peel of the fruit, after juice extraction and is widely used across the flavour and fragrance industry. Sweet orange (citrus sinensis) is around 90% d’limonene, a product used across many more industries. Approximately 40% of global oranges are processed for juice and oil with 60% solely used as a fresh fruit for consumption.
Bearing acreage of orange in the USA is a particular worry as year on year the output has been declining. In the past 10 years it has fallen from around 770 thousand acres to 600 thousand acres today. Below are Florida's recent fresh fruit outputs, courtesy of the USDA, showing the significance of the decline.
|TYPE / SEASON||2011/12||2012/13||2013/14||2014/15||2015/16*|
|Valencia Type (1,000 boxes)||72,500||66,500||51,300||49,400||33,000|
|Non-Valencia Type (1,000 boxes)||74,200||67,100||53,300||39,500||36,000|
*2015/16 data forecasted by USDA at 9th February 2016
Florida’s citrus farmers have been grappling with the severe effects of citrus greening for several years. This deadly disease has decimated many of the trees; operating and maintenance costs have soared significantly. 2018 saw Hurricane Irma wreaking havoc on the citrus plantations. However, following this long spell of difficulty, things have now improved with two consecutive years of bumper production. This has brought some relief for the citrus farmers. Exports and fruit for processing are predicted to rise with the production increase.
Considering initial indications in the growing areas, the recent 2019/20 USDA forecast estimates Florida’s total orange production at 74.0 million boxes with California contributing 49 million boxes. If the actual crop size achieves this milestone, it will overtake the previous year’s production by 3%. Florida’s Valencia oranges are predicted to be at 42.0 million boxes; while the non-Valencia varieties (early, midseason, and Navel) are projected to touch 32.0 million boxes. Out of these, Navel oranges comprise a figure of 800,000 boxes, making up 3% of the non-Valencia total crop. Despite a good crop projection, California beat Florida to bring up a production figure of 40 million boxes; but falls short in the Valencia category with 9 million boxes. These figures include calculations for average fruit per tree for both regular and first late blooms. The fruit size this year is considerably diminished for both varieties; non-Valencia oranges require 316 pieces to fill a 90-pound box. Fruit droppage is marginally higher than average and is projected to remain so during harvest as well. There has been a lot of damage through fruit droppage; 28% for non-Valencia oranges is quite significantly above average.
USDA ESTIMATED USA ORANGE PRODUCTION
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