Orange oil is extracted by simple pressure from the outer coloured part of the Citrus sinensis' peel. Oranges are widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates for the sweet fruit and commercially for essential oil extraction. Other origins for Orange oil include Brazil, South Africa & Spain.
Orange oil is a by-product of the juice industry. Oil is cold pressed from the peel of the fruit, after juice extraction and is widely used across the flavour and fragrance industry. Sweet orange (citrus sinensis) is around 90% d’limonene, a product used across many more industries. Approximately 40% of global oranges are processed for juice and oil with 60% solely used as a fresh fruit for consumption.
Bearing acreage of orange in the USA is a particular worry as year on year the output has been declining. In the past 10 years it has fallen from around 770 thousand acres to 600 thousand acres today. Below are Florida's recent fresh fruit outputs, courtesy of the USDA, showing the significance of the decline.
|TYPE / SEASON||2011/12||2012/13||2013/14||2014/15||2015/16*|
|Valencia Type (1,000 boxes)||72,500||66,500||51,300||49,400||33,000|
|Non-Valencia Type (1,000 boxes)||74,200||67,100||53,300||39,500||36,000|
*2015/16 data forecasted by USDA at 9th February 2016
The 2017/2018 season for Florida citruses ended in July, and it was an extremely difficult one. The USDA puts the final estimate for orange crop at 45 million boxes, a massive 32 % plunge from last season’s final production. This is in sharp contrast to the peak of 244 million boxes in 1998. The total includes 19 million boxes of non-Valencia oranges (early, midseason, navel, and temple varieties) and 26.0 million boxes of Valencia.
The Florida citrus commission reported that the 2018/2019 orange crop, due to commence in the fall season, is predicted to be at 60 million boxes.
The Florida industry is reeling under the crisis of the 2017/2018 crops, a record low in more than 75 years. Florida witnessed a severe attack of citrus greening that destroyed a large percentage of orange trees. The market was slowly limping back to recovery with an expected improvement in crop of about 75 million boxes, which would have been the first upward trend in several years. However, Hurricane Irma struck on September 10, 2017, and once again Florida witnessed a harsh setback.
Over the last ten to twelve years, crop sizes have decreased considerably due to citrus greening. This fatal bacterial affliction affects the vascular systems of citrus trees and thus hinders nutrient uptake. Though the tree yields fruit, the fruit size and quality are impacted and the cost of production shoots up. Since the discovery of greening in the fall of 2005, the Florida orange crop has shrunk by over 70% from 242 million boxes in the 2003-04 season. The state ranks first as USA’s primary orange-producing state and the third largest in the world after Brazil and China. According to studies conducted by USDA/NASS, approximately 95% of all oranges grown in Florida are processed for juice.
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