Orange oil is extracted by simple pressure from the outer coloured part of the Citrus sinensis' peel. Oranges are widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates for the sweet fruit and commercially for essential oil extraction. Other origins for Orange oil include Brazil, South Africa & Spain.
Orange oil is a by-product of the juice industry. Oil is cold pressed from the peel of the fruit, after juice extraction and is widely used across the flavour and fragrance industry. Sweet orange (citrus sinensis) is around 90% d’limonene, a product used across many more industries. Approximately 40% of global oranges are processed for juice and oil with 60% solely used as a fresh fruit for consumption.
Bearing acreage of orange in the USA is a particular worry as year on year the output has been declining. In the past 10 years it has fallen from around 770 thousand acres to 600 thousand acres today. Below are Florida's recent fresh fruit outputs, courtesy of the USDA, showing the significance of the decline.
|TYPE / SEASON||2011/12||2012/13||2013/14||2014/15||2015/16*|
|Valencia Type (1,000 boxes)||72,500||66,500||51,300||49,400||33,000|
|Non-Valencia Type (1,000 boxes)||74,200||67,100||53,300||39,500||36,000|
*2015/16 data forecasted by USDA at 9th February 2016
In mid-December the USDA presented its latest citrus crop forecast with total USA orange production in the 2021/22 season expected to reach 90.05 million boxes, split almost equally between Florida (46 million boxes) and California (43.5 million). The projection for Florida Valencia oranges at 28 million boxes has not changed, while forecasters now say Florida will produce 18 million boxes of non-Valencia oranges, down from a projection of 19 million boxes in October and November. Though the reduction is slight, it comes amid a years-long slide in those projections, with the forecast already the lowest in at least 25 years. However, this year is unlikely to be worst in terms of final production since during the 2017/18 season Florida produced fewer than 19 million boxes of oranges and 3.9 million boxes of grapefruit due to the impact of Hurricane Irma.
Fruit drop has severely impacted orange yield in Florida. According to the USDA citrus crop forecast, the estimate of fruit drop for early/mid-season and Valencia oranges was 43% and 34% respectively. There are four basic parameters that are assessed in compiling the forecasts: the number of bearing trees, number of fruits per tree, fruit size and fruit loss from droppage. The first two of these parameters have the greatest influence on the forecast.
USA: ESTIMATED ORANGE PRODUCTION 2018/19 TO 2020/21 (MILLION OF 40.8 KG BOXES)
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