Market Report WINTER 2023

Welcome to the Winter edition of Ultra’s Market Report!

Browse and discover all the latest on over 90 key essential oils from more than 20 growing regions around the world. In addition, our download version is packed full of additional articles including: Nutmeg a Treasured Spice and Healing Elixir; A Fragrant Winter Collection; Berlin 2023 IFEAT’S Best Conference Ever? and The Ultra Festival Cocktails and Dinner Event-IFEAT Berlin 2023

Digital version available. Click to DOWNLOAD and save it as your favourite pdf so you have everything you need to know offline and on the go!!


Lemon Oil

Lemon Oil Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F. Harvest: May - July

Fresh lemon production in Argentina in 2022/2023 is forecast to decline to 1.65 million metric tonnes (MMT), down from 2.1 MMT the prior year, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service (USDA FAS) reported recently.
The decline is due to the impact of rising costs, which have prompted smaller producers to limit the maintenance needed on lemon-bearing trees and even abandon or convert their orchards.

Prolonged unfavourable weather conditions have also played a role in the decline in lemon production. A severe drought in the main lemon-growing region of Argentina during the 2022 spring damaged many trees and reduced the size of the lemons that were produced. Over the past decade the lemon sector has been boosted by investments in new production and technology, with 70% to 75% of total production devoted to exports of processed lemon products. The products include essential oil, frozen pulp and dehydrated peel.

In recent years lemon growers in northwestern Argentina have expanded their planted area. The removal and replanting of trees have increased the number of plants per hectare and improved production efficiency and yields. However, for 2022/2023, lemon-planted area has decreased by 13% to 45,000 hectares.

The profitability of lemon producers has been under strain in recent years due to the increase in production costs and the exceptional overproduction of lemons in the prior two seasons. The rising cost of fertilisers, pesticides and labour wages have contributed to the increase in production costs, while the lower prices of fresh lemons have put further pressure on profitability. This has led some lemon producers reducing their planted area, as they are unable to make a profit from their crops.

USDA FAS estimated that the amount of fresh lemons for processing in 2022/2023 will decrease to 1.32 MMT, down from 1.64 MMT the prior year.

Market price : USD 6.95 /kilo


Orange Oil CP

Orange Oil CP Citrus sinensis Harvest: July - December

The updated Fundecitrus forecast for the 2023–2024 orange crop in Brazil’s citrus belt is 307.22 million boxes (M. boxes) of 40.8 kilograms each. That is a reduction of 2.12 M.
boxes, or 0.7%, from the September forecast of 309.34 M. boxes.
The forecast, by varieties, is:

• Hamlin, Westin and Rubi: 58.09 M. boxes (unchanged)
• Other early season: 18.51 M. boxes (unchanged)
• Pera Rio: 97.62 M. boxes (increased 1%)
• Valencia and Valencia Folha Murcha: 105.20 M. boxes (decreased 0.03%)
• Natal: 27.8 M. boxes (decreased 9.8%)

According to the current forecast update, the fruits will weigh less than the average of the last 10 years, which is 163 grams. One factor contributing to oranges not reaching their projected sizes is the persistent below-average rainfall.

Another impactful factor is the accelerated pace at which harvesting progresses, leading to a shorter period for fruit development. According to the Centre for Advanced Studies on Applied Economics (CEPEA), a new heat wave in Brazil’s São Paulo state has been concerning citrus growers. Temperatures are higher than those registered in the last wave in September and are lasting longer. Faster harvesting is emerging as a strategy to reduce the fruit drop rate, which has been projected down from 21% to 19%, considering all varieties.

Many producers say that this hot weather may also affect 2024–2025 production, but it is still too early to estimate possible impacts.

Citrus greening is also affecting the growth of the oranges. Brazil estimated in 2023 that it had 202.88 million citrus trees, largely the result of massive replanting efforts. In 2016–2017, there was much new planting in the southern region of Brazil. Those plantings were made in an effort to outrun citrus greening that was spreading in other parts of Brazil.
Citrus greening continues to be a problem in those new production regions. It is estimated that citrus greening affects 38.06% of orange trees in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais and productivity in Brazil’s São Paulo and Minas Gerais citrus belt will be reduced by 12% in the next five years.

Market prices : USD 12 - 14.00 /kilo


German Chamomile Oil

German Chamomile Oil Chamomilla recutita (L.) Harvest: March - May

There is no change in the demand-supply dynamics since the last report.

Market price : EURO 1025.00 /kilo
Lavender Oil

Lavender Oil Lavandula angustifolia Harvest: July

With a constant decrease in market demand for the oil figures have slid back to 2019 levels. Bulgaria has seen a reduction in the size of lavender fields. In 2021 20,000 ha were under cultivation. In the coming year it will be less than 10,000 ha. Farmers are regularly leaving the market and soon production may not be able to meet the dwindling demand. Oil price is at its lowest in the last couple of decades. These prices are expected to stay firm for as long as the current stockpile lasts.

Market price : EURO 35.00 /kilo
Melissa Oil

Melissa Oil Melissa officinalis Harvest: July

The crop, and as a result quantities produced, in this cycle are lower in volume. The harvest season commenced late due to constant rains and a cold late spring.

Market price : EURO 1215.00 /kilo
Rose Oil

Rose Oil Rosa damascena Harvest: May - June

Market for rose oil has been recovering steadily since the culmination of the restrictions due to the COVID-19 crisis. Starting in 2024 the minimum labour cost in Bulgaria will increase by 20%. This will lead to an upward surge in the cost of rose picking and, ultimately, the overall production figures. Currently, the demand for the oil is good. However, due to increased labour costs and high raw material costs, the price of oil would see an upward trend.

Market price : EURO 12,050.00 /kilo


Balsam Fir Oil

Balsam Fir Oil Abies balsamea Harvest: April - November

There is abundant oil in stock. Sufficient quantity is available for regular oil as well as organic.

Market price : Price on Request
Cedar Leaf Oil

Cedar Leaf Oil Thuja occidentalis Harvest: March - October

Limited supply of oil is available in the market with increasing demand. The oil price is witnessing an upward curve.

Market price : USD 160.00 /kilo
Labrador Tea Oil Organic

Labrador Tea Oil Organic Ledum groenlandicum

Labrador tea is harvested from the wild. The process is protected and there is semicontrol harvesting for it. There is a good stock and the price is holding firm.

Market price : Price on Request
White Spruce Oil Organic

White Spruce Oil Organic Picea glauca (Moensch) Harvest: May - August

There is decent supply in the market. However, the oil price is declining.

Market price : Price on Request


Cassia Oil

Cassia Oil Cinnamomum cassia Harvest: May - July, October - December

Many adulterated quantities from Vietnam are flooding the market. China imports major volumes from Vietnam and suppliers need to be extra careful while preparing batches.

Market price : USD 45.00 /kilo
Citronella Oil

Citronella Oil Cymbopogon winterianus Harvest: June - December

There is limited supply of citronella in the market. Demand for the oil has also been declining.

Market price : USD 17.00 /kilo
Eucalyptus Citriodora

Eucalyptus Citriodora Corymbia citriodora Harvest: June - October

Farmers have limited interest in the product. They are hardly distilling the oil. This is due to the constantly declining prices of the oil.

Market price : USD 15.00 /kilo
Eucalyptus Oil

Eucalyptus Oil Eucalyptus globulus Harvest: July - October

Since the end of October demand for the oil has increased, though the margins on eucalyptus remain a challenge with high acquisition and production costs. This has been a discouraging factor for farmers. At present, the price has shown a recovery and has increased due to the growing demand.

Market price : USD 16.00 /kilo
Geranium Oil

Geranium Oil Pelargonium graveolens Harvest: May - September

The market for geranium is limited. There has been a decrease in demand and volumes being traded are low. This has helped stabilise the price.

Market price : USD 152.00 /kilo
Litsea Cubeba Oil

Litsea Cubeba Oil Litsea cubeba Harvest: July - September

Raw material volumes are reducing in the market. Collectors hold major oil stock, while factories have stopped purchasing. The oil price has been stable since factories curtailed their purchase orders, but it is expected to increase again with the challenges around raw material.

Market price : USD 40.00 /kilo
Roman Chamomile Oil

Roman Chamomile Oil Chamaemelum nobile Harvest: November - January

The market scenario for roman chamomile is the same as last season.

Market price : EURO 545.00 /kilo
Star Anise Oil

Star Anise Oil Illicium verum Harvest: March - May, November - December

The market for star anise is inactive now. Limited quantities are in stock, and factories buy the product as per requirement. The crop season will commence next month.

Market price: USD 30.00 /kilo
Wintergreen Oil

Wintergreen Oil Gaultheria procumbens Harvest: July - September

Low volumes are being traded in the market. There has been a steady decline in oil distillation compared to last year. This is primarily due to a muted demand for the oil, which has resulted in reduced farmer interest in the product.

Market price: USD 60.00 /kilo

Eastern Europe

Caraway Oil

Caraway Oil Carum carvi

Good volumes are in stock to meet market demand.

Market price : USD 55.00 /kilo
Cedar Leaf Oil

Cedar Leaf Oil Thuja Occidentalis Harvest: March - October

There is limited availability in the market. Demand for cedar leaf oil is high, though, the price is holding steady.

Market price : USD 165.00 /kilo
Clary Sage Oil Moldova

Clary Sage Oil Moldova Salvia sclarea L. Harvest: June - July

Stock is available, since there was a good crop during the previous harvest. The oil price is stable.

Market price : USD 115.00 /kilo
Coriander Herb Oil

Coriander Herb Oil Corriandrum sativum L. Harvest: July - August

There is limited stock in the market. Demand is expected to rise before the next crop cycle, which could impact prices. Currently, there are no fluctuations in the oil price.

Market price: USD 120.00 /kilo
Coriander Seed Oil

Coriander Seed Oil Corriandrum sativum L. Harvest: July - August

Demand for the product is low. The oil price is stable.

Market price : USD 95.00 /kilo
Dill Weed Oil

Dill Weed Oil Anethum graveolens L. Harvest: July - September

Producers are unhappy with this year’s crop. The harvest in 2022 was superior compared to 2023, though the crop is sufficiently decent to keep price levels stable.

Market price : USD 50.00 /kilo
Fennel Bitter Oil

Fennel Bitter Oil Foeniculum vulgare Harvest: March - June, October - November

Moldova had a good crop. Price depends on quantities being purchased.

Market price : USD 125.00 /kilo
Fir Needle Oil

Fir Needle Oil Abies sibirica Harvest: November - December

Stock from multiple origins is available in the market. Volumes from other countries like Kazakhstan are also entering the market. The oil price is mostly stable. Some producers are offering the product at slightly lower prices.

Market price : USD 65.00 /kilo
Hyssop Oil

Hyssop Oil Hyssopus officinalis Harvest: March - June

There has been good cultivation in the fields in Moldova. Oil is in stock.

Market price : USD 218.00 /kilo
Juniper Berry

Juniper Berry Juniperus communis L. Harvest: September - October

There is a heavy demand from the spice market for the berries. The process of berry collection is ongoing. While the quantities produced are good, water content in berries is high and essential oil content is low. There is no significant change in price from last season. But due to the heavy demand, prices are not expected to fall.

Market price : USD 230.00 /kilo
Laurel Leaf Oil

Laurel Leaf Oil Laurus nobilis

Oil is in stock from multiple origins globally. Supply is sufficient to meet the demand.

Market price : USD 80.00 /kilo
Lavandin Grosso Oil

Lavandin Grosso Oil Lavandula x intermedia var. Grosso Harvest: July - August

Demand for the product is low, while supply is available in abundance. Decent high-quality volumes have been produced this year.

Market price : USD 20.00 /kilo
Lavandula Fine Oil

Lavandula Fine Oil Lavandula angustifolia

Stock is either reserved or already sold. Unfavourable, extreme weather conditions resulted in a 30% decline in production compared to last year.

Market price : USD 50.00 /kilo
Lavender Oil Moldova

Lavender Oil Moldova Lavandula angustifolia Harvest: September

Cultivated in Moldova, this variety has similar characteristics to the Russian product. There are no fluctuations in price.

Market price : USD 40.00 /kilo
Origanum Oil

Origanum Oil Origanum vulgare Harvest: July - August

Origanum is regarded as a natural antibiotic for the feed industry. There is massive demand for the product. The crop was decent, and oil is in stock. And the price is also stable.

Market price : USD 67.00 /kilo
Pine Pumllionis

Pine Pumllionis Pine pumilio

The severity of winter will decide the volumes produced during harvest. The new crop will be available in the months of May-June. Producers have oil in stock to meet any demand till the next crop cycle. The oil price is stable.

Market price : USD 125.00 /kilo
Sage Oil

Sage Oil Salvia sclarea Harvest: June - July

The crop saw a decent harvest. After the last harvest oil prices increased, but they have stabilised now.

Market price : USD 75.00 /kilo
Thuja Oil

Thuja Oil Thuja orientalis

Market for the oil is stable. There are no major fluctuations.

Market price : USD 35.00 /kilo
Thyme Oil

Thyme Oil

Market for the product is stable.

Market price : USD 132.00 /kilo


Orange Oil

Orange Oil Citrus sinensis

Citrus production in Egypt is expected to fall 10% to 5.4 million tonnes. Forecast for orange production stands at 3.7 million tonnes.

Market price : USD 15.00 /kilo


Cardamom Oil

Cardamom Oil Elettaria cardamomum Harvest: September - December

Cardamom is a volatile product and buyers are suggested to cover their requirements with purchases throughout the harvest cycle.

Guatemala witnessed a drought at the beginning of their rainy season in May and June. This resulted in a delay of two months in the new crop cycle. This has led to speculation in the market and fluctuations in price. It is too early to predict the impact of this delay, though it could affect flowering. Output, however, should be on expected lines.

The last harvest cycle concluded in March 2023. Normally production volumes are in the range of 35,000 tonnes. The estimated output from the last harvest is significantly higher at 50,000 tonnes.

Due to the carryover stock from the last harvest, the price could fall. Cardamom saw its lowest price between October 2022 and January 2023 due to the quantity of material. In February 2023 to receive better qualities, exporters pushed the product price. Till that time producers were letting the pods overmature waiting for the price to improve.

Market price: USD 380.00 /kilo


Ajowan Seed Oil

Ajowan Seed Oil Harvest: January - March

The demand and supply for the oil is balanced. There is no major fluctuation in price.

Market price : USD 60.00 /kilo
Basil Oil Holy

Basil Oil Holy Ocimum sanctum Harvest: November - February

New crop season has commenced, and good volumes are expected to be produced. Carryover stock from last season is also available in the market, though demand for the oil is limited. Oil price had been falling for a while, but it has started to stabilise now.

Market price : USD 120.00 /kilo
Black Pepper Oil

Black Pepper Oil Piper nigrum L. Harvest: December - February

There is an increased interest in the market for black pepper oleoresin due to its higher potency. This has led to an anticipation of a global surge in demand for the product. Unfortunately, the raw material availability in India, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam is less than last year. This has led to a sustained increase in price.

Market price : USD 45.00 /kilo
Cardamom Oil

Cardamom Oil Elettaria cardamomum Harvest: September - December

There is a supply shortage due to low levels of production. Less rainfall and drought like situation in Kerala high ranges have affected the product. The harvest cycle for cardamom is between July and August. The price of cardamom is rising, and the trend is expected to continue in the coming months.

Market price : USD 380.00 /kilo
Citronella Oil

Citronella Oil Cymbopogon winterianus

There is good demand for the oil in the market. This trend is expected to continue in the coming months. Oil price is constantly rising.

Market price : USD 20.00 /kilo
Clove Bud Oil

Clove Bud Oil Eugenia caryophyllata Harvest: January - February

There is a shortage of raw material in the market. But demand for the oil is consistent. This has resulted in an increase in price.

Market price : Price on Request
Cornmint Oil

Cornmint Oil Mentha arvensis Harvest: May - July

Crop acreage in 2024 is expected to mirror 2023 levels or fall slightly short. At present, customers are not willing to hold stock. But if the economic situation improves next year, there is a potential for spike in demand. Price of mentha arvensis is also expected to increase next year. At present, the price has stabilised in the market due to farmers either holding stock or not possessing enough inventory.

Market price : USD 16.00 /kilo
Cumin Seed Oil

Cumin Seed Oil Cuminum cyminum Harvest: May - June

Unfavourable weather conditions and decreased plantation area have resulted in a significant drop in crop size. Oil price is increasing.

Market price : Price on Request
Davana Oil

Davana Oil Artemisia Pallens Harvest: February - April

The planting season has commenced. But there is already a loss of crop due to heavy rainfall. This is expected to increase the price in the future. There is a surge in demand for natural and exotic fragrances in the market.

Market price : USD 400.00 /kilo
Dill Seed Oil

Dill Seed Oil Anethum graveolens L. Harvest: December - January

There is consistent supply of raw material, though demand for the oil is limited. There is no major fluctuation in oil price.

Market price : USD 45.00 /kilo
Fennel Seed Oil

Fennel Seed Oil Foeniculum vulgare Harvest: March - June, October - November

Stock is available in abundance, though demand for the oil is low. Oil price is stable.

Market price : USD 150.00 /kilo
Ginger Grass Oil

Ginger Grass Oil Cymbopogon martini Harvest: January - April

There is consistent demand for the oil, which may rise in the coming months. At present, there is no fluctuation in oil price.

Market price : USD 20.00 /kilo
Ginger Oil

Ginger Oil Zingiber officinale Harvest: January - April

There is limited demand for ginger oil in the market. Once the harvest season approaches, demand and supply dynamics may change. The harvest season for ginger commences in September. At present oil prices are stable and are expected to stay firm in the short term.

Market price : USD 75.00 /kilo
Lemongrass Oil

Lemongrass Oil Cymbopogon citratus Harvest: July - November

Production levels decrease during winter. This will impact citral percentage too. There is limited demand for the oil. Price is currently stable.

Market price : USD 25.00 /kilo
Nutmeg Oil

Nutmeg Oil Myristica fragrans Harvest: June - August

The next harvest season of nutmeg is in March. There are limited stocks in the market and the situation will persist till the next harvest cycle. This has resulted in a price increase and the trend is expected to continue till stocks become available.

Market price : USD 60.00 /kilo
Palmarosa Oil

Palmarosa Oil Cymbopogon martini Harvest: January - June

Farmers and traders are holding stock. Oil price is stable.

Market price : USD 40.00 /kilo
Peppermint Oil

Peppermint Oil Mentha piperita Harvest: April - July

Areas of plantation may reduce in 2024, due to the low price the product drew this year. Combined with the low acreage of American mint, market price is expected to increase. There is a shortage of chlorpyrifos-free mentha piperita. Market is flooded with low quality material, while high grade stock has been dispatched. Price levels witnessed in 2023 are not expected to continue in the coming year. An upward price trend is expected. Currently, the price of mentha piperita has increased by 5-8%. Mentha oil is being traded for INR 1,006/kg.

Market price: USD 30.00 /kilo
Sandalwood Oil

Sandalwood Oil Santalum album Harvest: March - November

The market is stable with a good supply of raw materials. The quality being offered is also consistent. Suppliers are offering competitive pricing, which will help maintain the market balance.

Market price : USD 1855.00 /kilo
Spearmint Oil

Spearmint Oil Mentha spicata Harvest: July - August

There is an increase in demand for the oil. But the low-price levels in 2023 can adversely impact plantation areas and furthermore supply in the coming year. Currently, there is a slight increase in oil price.

Market price : USD 45.00 /kilo
Turmeric Root Oil

Turmeric Root Oil Curcuma longa Harvest: March - May

Raw material cost has increased, which will adversely impact oil price. The harvest season for turmeric lies between November and February. Currently, oil price is stable, but future trends depend on raw material cost.

Market price : USD 15.00 /kilo
Vetivert Oil

Vetivert Oil Vetiveria zizanoides Harvest: All Year

There is heavy rain in most vetiver growing areas. This has delayed the harvest, which will now commence in January 2024. Demand for the oil is extremely high, as a result, price is witnessing an upward trend.

Market price: USD 300.00 /kilo


Citronella Oil

Citronella Oil Cymbopogon winterianus Harvest: October - February

Demand is low for this product and now prices are very low as well. However, this is expected to change due to poor yield and severe weather conditions.

Market price : USD 15.00 /kilo
Clove Oil

Clove Oil Eugenia caryophyllata Harvest: May - September

Due to the rainy season, the yield of oil from raw material has reduced. Many distillation units in Java are reducing operations. Prices are on an upward trend and will perhaps continue until Feb 2024.

Market price : USD 18.00 /kilo
Nutmeg Oil

Nutmeg Oil Myristica fragrans Houtt. Harvest: All Year

Nutmeg Cultivation and Harvesting Insights. Nutmeg is a highly sought-after spice with significant economic importance in Indonesia, particularly in Sulawesi, Sumatra, and Java. The country stands as a major global producer of nutmeg, contributing to both local consumption and international trade. However, the nutmeg industry faces several challenges that impact production, yield, and quality. A nutmeg tree takes 5 years to yield fruits, and the peak production is around 15 years; then, the yield starts declining, but a nutmeg tree can live up to 40 years.

Key Findings

Mature Nutmeg Selection for Spice (collected after 9 months) Larger nutmegs are preferred for the spice industry. Currently, the spice market is 200% more lucrative than the oil market. 90% of the time it is more interesting, so farmers tend to leave the nutmeg fruits on the tree for an additional 3 months. Sulawesi is by far the largest producer of nutmeg in Indonesia, but it is mostly farmed for the spice. The quality of the oil is not as suitable as the qualities coming from Sumatra and Java. The Red Nutmeg Mace is mainly used for spice. However, some is also produced for the oil on demand.

Small Nutmegs for Essential Oil Smaller nutmeg fruits are used for essential oil extraction. Today they have lower myristicin content (7-8%) compared to (9-10%) in the past. The main reason for this decrease is due to climatic changes (last 3 years of rainy seasons). The mature nutmeg spice’s skin is also added in the distillation.

Intercropping Nutmeg and Cocoa or other crops Nutmeg and cocoa intercropping is possible with an 8-metre gap between plants. Nutmeg can intercrop with many other crops. In Sumatra, it often grows in jungles. And if the price is not attractive anymore the farmers would just not harvest and grow something else. They often have different crops to diversify the risk and make sure they have food at the end of the day.

Harvesting Seasons Nutmeg harvesting season varies between August and November (9 months from blooming for the spice and 6 months for the oil).

Climatic Impact on Harvest The 2023 forecast suggests reduced harvest due to adverse climate conditions (excessive rain and warmth). Initial warmth is crucial for fruit growth, which has been compromised by heavy rains.

Challenges in Nutmeg Production Nutmeg production in Indonesia faces various challenges, including fungal infections and adverse environmental conditions, which adversely affect production, yield, and quality.

Nutmeg Production and Yield Calculation There are approximately 200 nutmeg trees per hectare, each producing 30 kg of fruit annually. Approximately 4 kg of dry seeds can be extracted from these 30 kg of fruit. So you can consider 800 kgs of dried seed per hectare. The yield of oil is around 7%, resulting in an estimated oil yield of 56 kg per hectare. Considering that there is between 100 and 150 MT of nutmeg oil produced in Indonesia, you would need between 1,785 hectares and 2,700 hectares to produce the whole quantity. 95% of nutmeg farmers have 1 hectare or less. However, we estimate that there are approximately 128,000 hectares of nutmeg in Indonesia. More than 95% is for the spice, and the main production is in Sulawesi, but the quality is not good for the oil. There are approximately 20,000 MT of nutmeg fruit spice grade.

(Yield of nutmeg fruit is 0.8 kg per tree)

Future Forecast & Challenges Today, the spice market is 200% more lucrative than the oil industry, so most farmers are waiting for the spice grade unless they need quick cash. Regrettably, fungal infections pose a significant challenge to nutmeg production, leading to premature breaking and damage of nutmegs. There is currently no effective prevention for this fungal virus, resulting in declining yield and quality over time. Finally, the change in climatic conditions with three years in a row of no dry season affected the crop severely.

Market price : USD 95.00 /kilo
Patchouli Oil

Patchouli Oil Pogostemon cablin Harvest: All Year

There is a scarcity of patchouli oil in the market. Harvest predictions till mid 2024 are also not promising. Pre-empting a supply shortage, producers and exporters are making upfront payments to ensure a smooth and consistent source of material.

Several reasons are responsible for this supply shortage. The prolonged drought situation in Sulawesi has impacted the quality of crop. Lush green foliage has been replaced by stunted plant growth. Wilt virus has also affected the plant. Luckily, its impact hasn’t been as extensive as was feared initially. The depleting soil situation is a major concern as farmers have used the same patch of soil to replant patchouli without crop rotation to replenish soil nutrients.

While most areas are hit by drought, regions of Poso, Mamuju and Palopo have had some relief. There is also a forecast of rain, which should aid patchouli growth.

With supply issues, adulterated products are entering the market. Buyers need to watch out for contaminated products, which could either contain excessive fat, or elevated levels of DEP.

Throughout 2023, patchouli saw a consistent rise in price. In the last few weeks the price has jumped 25-30%. This price trend will persist for the next 4-6 months.

Market price: USD 68 - 72.00 /kilo


Bergamot Oil

Bergamot Oil Citrus bergamia Harvest: November - March

A 40% drop in crop from last year is expected due to high temperatures. The season will commence soon, and price is expected to rise.

Market price : USD 265.00 /kilo
Lime Oil

Lime Oil Citrus aurantiifolia

High temperature in Sicily is adversely impacting growth of lime. Coloration of fruits depends on difference in day and night temperature. Currently, the daytime temperatures are hovering around 30- 35oC and night-time between 20-25oC. Since there is hardly any difference, limes continue to be green even after maturing. The start of season has been delayed due to these imbalances.

Market price : USD 90.00 /kilo
Orange Oil CP

Orange Oil CP Citrus sinensis Harvest: March - May

Italy is projected to see a 6% rise in citrus production in 2024. 2.58 million tonnes are expected to be produced which includes the volume of orange projected at 1.6 million tonnes.

Market price : USD 20.00 /kilo


Cistus Oil absolute

Cistus Oil absolute Cistus ladaniferus Harvest: June - October

Product is in stock. There is a good demand for it in the market.

Market price : Price on Request
Lime Oil

Lime Oil Citrus aurantifolia Harvest: May - August

Lime supply from Mexico faces inconsistencies, leading to diversification in sourcing, while firm pricing is expected until spring. Lime supply from Mexico continues to be inconsistent due to weather and other ongoing conditions including some aging trees, disease problems in nursery stock and drought. That means that fruit sizing and fruit bloom continues to be a problem. In addition, criminal activities are adding to the supply difficulties.

Some major retailers are either moving or diversifying their supply regions to include more supply from countries such as Colombia. Colombia is offering consistent lime supply, though internal markets are also very good in both Colombia and Peru.

Due to the lack of official figures from Mexico, and the fact that the USDA groups together both types of lime with lemon, it is difficult to give an evolution of the production and processing volumes.

The two different botanical varieties of lime can easily be differentiated by size. Key lime is much smaller, about the size of a golf ball. Key limes are cultivated in complicated areas of Mexico on the west coast. The distilled oil, which is the main product when processing, is used in soft drinks, but Key limes are also a popular ingredient in Mexican gastronomy and are very popular on the fresh market. Distilled Key lime is produced differently from other distilled citrus oils, as the whole fruit is crushed and macerated in the juice before distilling. Although Key limes are grown all year the main season is between May and September, and then a winter crop at the end of the year. In 2022 there was no winter crop, which pushed already high lime oil prices even higher to reach record levels. The difficulties in Mexico have encouraged an expansion of Peruvian production and processing. One source recently estimated that Key lime production in 2022/23 was 315,000 MT in Mexico and 216,000 MT in Peru. Production of Persian lime, or Tahitian lime, in Mexico was estimated at 400,000 MT during the same period, while Brazilian production was estimated at 90,000 MT.

The Persian lime is similar to a lemon, but is consumed and processed immature (green). This fruit becomes yellow if left on the tree. The Persian seedless lime is primarily grown on the Mexican east coast and is gaining popularity due to its lack of seeds, especially on the USA fresh market. Approximately 10% of the crop is processed to produce peel oil, often referred to as expressed oil, being the equivalent of a cold pressed quality for other citrus.

Mexico is the main origin of both types of lime and the tension on the lime pricing has only increased since COVID when this fruit was seen as an essential way to stay healthy. Pricing should soften for most qualities if the winter crop 2023 is confirmed, but not dramatically. Increasing production from Peru could also ease the tension.

Market price : USD 125.00 /kilo
Rosemary Oil

Rosemary Oil Rosmarinus officinalis Harvest: All Year

Unfavourable weather conditions have massively impacted rosemary production. There is heavy demand for rosemary in the market.

Market price : USD 82.00 /kilo
Wild Chamomile

Wild Chamomile Ormenis mixta (L.) Dumort Harvest: May

Harvest challenges posed by drought and other factors have severely impacted wild chamomile production. But suppliers have managed to offer good organic and conventional quality.

Market price : USD 1205.00 /kilo


Argan Oil

Argan Oil  Argania spinosa L.

Challenging market conditions prevail in Morocco. The country depends on wild harvesting for its product supply. However, constant drought poses a major challenge. It has been five years since these unfavourable weather conditions have persisted. It has also negatively impacted raw material prices. Since the end of 2022, and through 2023, raw material prices were at their highest. They are dropping now. The Moroccan government has taken corrective measures and suppliers are hopeful for a recovery. The demand for argan oil remains high and long-term partnerships with producers are helping companies provide an uninterrupted supply of argan oil.

Market price : USD 40.00 /kilo
Cedarwood Oil Atlas

Cedarwood Oil Atlas Cedrus atlantica Harvest: All Year

There is a strong demand for the oil, and it is in stock.

Market price : USD 20.00 /kilo


Wintergreen Oil

Wintergreen Oil Gaultheria procumbens Harvest: July - September

Wintergreen is gathered from the wild in Nepal. It is an all-season shrub and grows mainly in the hilly regions of Nepal. The variety grown in Nepal consists of 99.8% methyl salicylate. Production and demand for wintergreen has seen a decline. One of the primary reasons are the wildfires of 2021. A majority of the crop was destroyed in the fire and recovery will take at least three years. Due to the sustainability drive, an area is available for cultivation for a two-year period. The constant movement and distance for farmers to collect crops has resulted in collection of smaller volumes.

Market prices : USD 75.00 /kilo

New Zealand

Manuka Oil

Manuka Oil Leptospermum scoparium Harvest: April - October

Plants in New Zealand are exposed to some of the highest level of UV radiation. Developing nature’s own defence mechanism these plants generate a high level of antioxidants. Manuka is one such plant. It grows in the east cape region of New Zealand. Manuka has a high level of b-triketones, which are powerful antimicrobial agents. They aid in creating a natural layer of protection.

Market price : USD 700.00 /kilo


Cabreuva Oil

Cabreuva Oil Myrocarpus frondosus Harvest: All Year

There is decent supply of oil in the market. Production has been good, and no fluctuations in price are expected till the end of the year.

Market price : Price on Request
Petitgrain Oil

Petitgrain Oil Citrus aurantium ssp. Harvest: All Year

Due to El Niño the region is experiencing heavy rainfall, and weather conditions are expected to persist in the coming months. Due to carryover stock, supply has not been hit. But if the rains continue, the production process will get delayed resulting in a shortage of product. The production season commenced in mid-October and has been good.

Market price : USD 77.00 /kilo


Lemon Oil

Lemon Oil Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F. Harvest: November - July

AILIMPO’s lemon crop estimate for the next 2023/2024 crop season forecasts a production in Spain of 1,090,000 metric tonnes (MT), which represents an overall decrease of 10% compared to the 2021/2022 season. This closed with a final production of 1,211,000 MT according to the provisional balance that accounts for the fruit exported, processed, sold in the domestic market, as well as weight losses. The balance has been higher than initially expected partly due to a higher production of Verna lemons due to the strong increase in sizes, and an important harvest of “rodrejo” lemons in summer.

The expected decline is due to adverse weather conditions in 2022 with significant rainfall events in March and April that affected flowering and fruit setting in many production areas. In addition, the summer has been particularly hot with increased temperatures and a lack of rain, resulting in delayed fruit development with smaller fruit sizes at present date. The decrease will be particularly remarkable in the Verna variety, with a 22% drop. In the case of the Fino variety, a 5% drop is expected. In any case, the rate of harvesting and size development will determine the final crop estimate.

Spain will continue to be the world’s leading exporter of fresh lemons in 2022/2023, and the second largest processor of lemons into juice, essential oil, and dehydrated peel worldwide. Spain will also maintain its leading position in Europe with conventional and organic lemons, consolidating sustainable production, support for biodiversity and GLOBALGAP and GRASP certifications, offering the European market a local product.



Market price : EURO 12.00 /kilo


Grapefruit Oil

Grapefruit Oil Citrus paradisi Harvest: December - April

Latest 2023/2024 forecast from USDA in December for all USA grapefruit production is 8.10 M boxes.

The Florida all-grapefruit forecast jumped from an initial season forecast of 1.9 M boxes to 2.4 M boxes. Red grapefruit climbed from 1.65 M boxes to 2.1 M boxes, while white grapefruit rose from 250,000 to 300,000 boxes.

Fruit size of red grapefruit at harvest is projected to be above average, and fruit droppage is projected to be average. Projected fruit size of white grapefruit at harvest is slightly above average and projected droppage is below average. If this forecast is realised Florida’s grapefruit crop will be 33% larger than last season’s final production.

Meanwhile, California and Texas forecasts remained unchanged at 3.5 M boxes and 2.2 M boxes respectively.


Market price : USD 65.00 /kilo
Lemon Oil

Lemon Oil Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F. Harvest: May - July

The December USDA USA total lemon production forecast for 2023/24 stands at 24.50 M. boxes, unchanged from the October forecast. Arizona production stands at 1.50 M. boxes while the forecast for California production stands at 23 M. boxes.


Market price : USD 25.00 /kilo
Orange Oil

Orange Oil Citrus sinensis Harvest: February - May

The USA citrus production is forecast at 4.51 million tonnes, up 1% from the prior year. Oranges will account for 2.48 million tonnes.

The 2023/2024 Florida all orange USDA December forecast is 20.5 M boxes, unchanged from the October forecast. If realised, this will be 30% more than last season’s final production. The forecast consists of 7.50 M boxes of non-Valencia oranges (early, mid-season and Navel varieties) and 13.0 M boxes of Valencia oranges.

Florida Valencia orange production in 2022/2023 hit a historic low of 9.6 M boxes, in large part due to losses from Hurricane Ian. Because 96% of the Valencia oranges grown in Florida go to juice, domestically produced orange juice (OJ) reached its lowest level in at least 50 years. Historically, Florida’s production accounted for about 85% of the oranges going to processing in the United States. However, Florida’s share of oranges for processing declined to 60% in 2022/2023, with the remaining 40% coming from California and Texas.

Citrus greening (HLB) has significantly impacted the Florida citrus industry. The disease has caused tree health, yield, and fruit quality to decrease significantly over time. In 2022–23, due to the combined impact of HLB, Hurricane Ian and a freeze in December 2022, the state-wide average yield for both Valencia and non-Valencia oranges was estimated to be approximately 50 boxes per acre, down from 389 and 473 boxes per acre in 2003/2004 respectively.


Market price: USD 16.00 /kilo


Basil Oil

Basil Oil Ocimum basilicum L. Harvest: November - February

The Red River delta area accounts for almost 85% of the growing area. The sowing season for basil begins in December. Harvesting commences three and a half months after the sowing season. The annual production capacity is 15 MT.

Market price : USD 122.00 /kilo
Cassia Oil

Cassia Oil Cinnamomum cassia Harvest: July - December

The second harvest season of cassia is in its final stage. Unfortunately, distillers do not have enough raw material to process the oil. Buyers should formulate procurement plans for 2024 keeping the upcoming holiday season in mind. In terms of composition, almost 79-80% cassia oil consists of cinnamic aldehyde. Another high value isolate in cassia is benzaldehyde, making up 1.5-2% of the oil. Thus, the price of cassia raw materials directly influences their price too. If the challenges regarding raw materials continue it will increase the price of raw materials, and isolates like cinnamic aldehyde and benzaldehyde.

Market price : USD 42.00 /kilo
Star Anise Oil

Star Anise Oil Illicium verum Harvest: March - May, November - December

Vietnam is the second largest exporter of star anise products. The harvest season for star anise commences in October and continues till December. After harvesting the leaves wilt for a couple of months before distillation. The annual production capacity is 120 MT. The best market rate for star anise is available between November and March.

Market price : USD 30.00 /kilo
Tamanu Oil

Tamanu Oil Calophyllum inophyllum

Tamanu propagates in the coastal areas and lowland forests. The flowering season is between February and June, while fruits are picked from December till August. Oil is extracted from the fruits via cold pressing. The annual production capacity is between 5-10 MT.

Market price : Price on Request